Texto darfur: Europe's leaders respond to demands for action to stop the genocide



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27/03/2007 – Diário de Estudo

Inglês – tradução livre

Adinoél Sebastião


  1. TEXTO

  2. Darfur: Europe's leaders respond to demands for action to stop the genocide

      1. By Stephen Castle in Berlin

        1. Published: 26 March 2007


Fonte: www.independent.co.uk
Europe's leaders toughened their stand against mass murder in Darfur yesterday, issuing new threats against the Sudanese government, as their own 50th birthday celebration summit was thrown off balance by the unprecedented appeal from Europe's leading writers for action. Darfur forced its way on to the meeting's agenda after a coalition of European writers and intellectuals spoilt the self-congratulatory party with a devastating critique of the bloc's failure to act to end the violence in the Sudanese province. Today, about 2.5 million people are displaced and more than 200,000 civilians are dead as a result of government-sponsored violence.

Despite the scale of murder since the conflict began in 2003 - the US has described it as genocide - there has been no attempt to launch the kind of humanitarian intervention that saved civilian lives in Kosovo.

In a letter to the 27 leaders of EU states, published by The Independent, 10 of the continent's leading writers and thinkers recalled the atrocities of Auschwitz and Srebrenica in their call for immediate action against the Sudanese regime and President Omar al-Bashir.

The signatories included Tom Stoppard, Seamus Heaney, Harold Pinter, Dario Fo, Günter Grass, Umberto Eco, Bernard-Henri Lévy, Franca Rame and Václav Havel.

The intervention had an immediate effect on Angela Merkel, the Chancellor of Germany, which holds the EU presidency, who called on fellow leaders to consider stricter sanctions against the government in Khartoum.

She said the EU wanted President Bashir to allow UN peacekeepers into the country and comply with UN resolutions.

"We think of the people in Zimbabwe and Darfur. The suffering there is unbearable, We must look at stronger sanctions" she said

Tony Blair, who sent a letter to Ms Merkel pressing for talks on the issue, demanded renewed efforts at the United Nations to put in place a no-fly zone to prevent the Sudanese air force causing more loss of life.

In Berlin, Mr Blair held a meeting with one of the victims of the violence, Ishag Mekki, whose sister was murdered in her own home. "Had you leaders acted earlier and intervened, today I would have my elder sister alive," Mr Mekki said.

Yesterday's summit in Berlin was called to mark the EU's 50th birthday. The event involved a concert, a banquet and a formal lunch yesterday.

The issue of Darfur had not been scheduled for debate, though Europe's leaders were due to discuss Europe's role in the world. In the end the plight of the province was raised over a lunch of crab with bacon and broiled beef with beetroot, red wine and onion sauce.

Earlier, Ms Merkel used a speech to describe the suffering in Darfur as "unbearable" and said: "I want to state frankly that we have to consider stronger sanctions". The comments mark a clear change of tone because some leaders have argued that they have a better chance of influencing the government in Khartoum if they engage with it.

The EU has very limited sanctions in place including an arms embargo and visa ban on a handful of military officers. Calls by campaigners for an immediate extension of the restrictions and an assets freeze were not taken up, though these could be imposed at a formal meeting of EU foreign ministers next month.

Yesterday Mr Blair argued: "The situation in Darfur is intolerable. Over 200,000 people have died, there are some two million people displaced".

"The actions of the Sudanese government are completely unacceptable. It is, in my view, essential for the international community to take a new resolution on Darfur to the UN Security Council. We need to extend the sanctions regime.

"It is a test for us as a community also for the UN. I think there is a feeling in some quarters that this issue will just somehow go off the international agenda. Today has shown it will not. It will stay until something is done."

Romano Prodi, the Italian Prime Minister, described Darfur as a "chronic drama".

Four years of war and terror

The Darfur conflict is an armed struggle in western Sudan, largely between the Janjaweed ("devils on horseback"), a militia group recruited by the government from Bedouin Arabs, and the mostly land-tilling tribes of the region.
* ORIGINS OF THE STRUGGLE

The conflict began in 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) attacked government forces in Darfur. Unlike in the Second Sudanese Civil War, which was fought between the primarily Muslim north and Christian and Animist south, in Darfur most people are Muslim, as are the Janjaweed.


* REFUGEES

Between February and April 2003 refugees began arriving in eastern Chad. Large numbers of civilians became internally displaced within Darfur. Another rebel group, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) emerged in Darfur. By May 2003 the first air raids were being conducted on African villages.


* UNITED NATIONS

The Security Council called on Khartoum to disarm the Janjaweed. In January 2005 a UN report accused the government and militias of systematic abuses in Darfur, but stopped short of calling the violence genocide. Recommended that the Security Council refer the situation in Darfur to the International Criminal Court.


* CASUALTIES

Sudan says no more than 9,000 people have been killed; most NGOs and the United Nations use 200,000 to more than 400,000. As many as 2.5 million are thought to have been displaced as of October 2006.


* AFRICAN UNION

After fighting worsened last year the Security Council called for a new 17,300-strong UN peacekeeping force to replace ineffectual 7,000-troop African Union mission.




  1. TRADUÇÃO LIVRE

  2. Darfur: Europe's leaders respond to demands for action to stop the genocide

Europe's leaders toughened their stand against mass murder in Darfur yesterday, issuing new threats against the Sudanese government, as their own 50th birthday celebration summit was thrown off balance by the unprecedented appeal from Europe's leading writers for action. Darfur forced its way on to the meeting's agenda after a coalition of European writers and intellectuals spoilt the self-congratulatory party with a devastating critique of the bloc's failure to act to end the violence in the Sudanese province. Today, about 2.5 million people are displaced and more than 200,000 civilians are dead as a result of government-sponsored violence.

Líderes europeus endureceram sua resistência contra mortes massivas em Darfur ontem, emitindo novas ameaças contra o governo sudanês lançadas em sua própria reunião de celebração do 50º. aniversário pelo apelo sem precedentes dos escritores europeus pela ação. Darfur foi forçada para a agenda da reunião após a reunião dos escritores e intelectuais europeus arruinar a festa de auto-congratulação com uma crítica devastadora sobre a falha do bloco para colocar fim a violência no Sudão. Hoje, cerca de 2,5 milhões de pessoas estão desalojadas e mais de 200.000 civis foram mortos como resultado de um governo que patrocina a violência.
Despite the scale of murder since the conflict began in 2003 - the US has described it as genocide - there has been no attempt to launch the kind of humanitarian intervention that saved civilian lives in Kosovo.

Apesar da escala assassinatos desde o conflito começou em 2003 – os Estados Unidos descreveram isto como um genocídio – não houve tentativa para lançar um tipo de intervenção humanitária que salvou vidas de civis em Kosovo.


In a letter to the 27 leaders of EU states, published by The Independent, 10 of the continent's leading writers and thinkers recalled the atrocities of Auschwitz and Srebrenica in their call for immediate action against the Sudanese regime and President Omar al-Bashir.

Em uma carta para aos 27 líderes da União Européia, publicado pelo The Independent, 10 dos escritores e pensadores líderes do continente chamaram a atenção para as atrocidades de Auschwitz e Srebrenica em seu pedido para uma ação imediata contra o regime sudanês e o presidente Omar al-Bashir.


The signatories included Tom Stoppard, Seamus Heaney, Harold Pinter, Dario Fo, Günter Grass, Umberto Eco, Bernard-Henri Lévy, Franca Rame and Václav Havel.

Os signatários incluem Tom Stoppard, Seamus Heaney, Harold Pinter, Dario Fo, Günter Grass, Umberto Eco, Bernard-Henri Lévy, Franca Rame e Václay Havel.


The intervention had an immediate effect on Angela Merkel, the Chancellor of Germany, which holds the EU presidency, who called on fellow leaders to consider stricter sanctions against the government in Khartoum.

A intervenção teve um efeito imediato sobre Angela Merkel, a chanceler da Alemanha, o qual é presidente da União Européia, que chamou os líderes para considerar sanções estritas contra o governo em Khartoum.


She said the EU wanted President Bashir to allow UN peacekeepers into the country and comply with UN resolutions.

Ele disse que a União Européia precisa que o presidente Bashir permita ONU manter a paz dentro do país e cumpra com as resoluções da mesma.


"We think of the people in Zimbabwe and Darfur. The suffering there is unbearable, We must look at stronger sanctions" she said.

“Nós pensamos nas pessoas no Zimbabwe e Darfur. O sofrimento lá é intolerável, nós devemos olhar com grandes sanções” ela disse.


Tony Blair, who sent a letter to Ms Merkel pressing for talks on the issue, demanded renewed efforts at the United Nations to put in place a no-fly zone to prevent the Sudanese air force causing more loss of life.

Tony Blair, que escreveu uma carta para a Senhora Merkel pressionando por conversas sobre o assunto, solicitou novos esforços da ONU para criar um lugar como uma zona de não vôo para prevenir que a força aérea sudanesa causa mais perdas de vidas.


In Berlin, Mr Blair held a meeting with one of the victims of the violence, Ishag Mekki, whose sister was murdered in her own home. "Had you leaders acted earlier and intervened, today I would have my elder sister alive," Mr Mekki said.

Em Berlin, o Senhor Blair esteve na reunião com uma das vítimas da violência, Ishag Mekki, cuja irmã foi assassinada em sua própria casa. “Vocês líderes têm que atuar cedo e intervir, hoje eu poderia ter minha irmã mais velha viva”, disse o Senhor Mekki.


Yesterday's summit in Berlin was called to mark the EU's 50th birthday. The event involved a concert, a banquet and a formal lunch yesterday.

A reunião de ontem em Berlin foi chamada para marcar o aniversário de 50 anos da União Européia. O evento envolveu um concerto, um banquete e almoço formal.


The issue of Darfur had not been scheduled for debate, though Europe's leaders were due to discuss Europe's role in the world. In the end the plight of the province was raised over a lunch of crab with bacon and broiled beef with beetroot, red wine and onion sauce.

O assunto Darfur não foi agendado para debate, embora os líderes europeus estejam adequados para discutir o papel da Europa no mundo. No final do compromisso foi servido o almoço de caranguejo com bacon e bife grelado com beterraba, vinho e molho de cebola.


Earlier, Ms Merkel used a speech to describe the suffering in Darfur as "unbearable" and said: "I want to state frankly that we have to consider stronger sanctions". The comments mark a clear change of tone because some leaders have argued that they have a better chance of influencing the government in Khartoum if they engage with it.

Antes, a Senhora Merkel usou a palavra para descrever o sofrimento em Darfur como “intolerável” e disse: “Eu preciso colocar francamente que nós temos que considerar grandes sanções”. Os comentários marcaram uma mudança clara do tom porque alguns líderes argumentam que eles têm uma melhor chance de influenciar o governo Khartoum se ele se empenharem nisto.


The EU has very limited sanctions in place including an arms embargo and visa ban on a handful of military officers. Calls by campaigners for an immediate extension of the restrictions and an assets freeze were not taken up, though these could be imposed at a formal meeting of EU foreign ministers next month.

A União Européia tem limitado muitas sanções ao local incluindo embargo de armas e banindo visto sobre certos oficiais militares. Chamados pelos companheiros para uma extensão imediata das restrições e um congelamento de contas eles não fizeram isto, através disto poderão impor numa reunião formal da União Européia para os ministros das relações exteriores no próximo mês.


Yesterday Mr Blair argued: "The situation in Darfur is intolerable. Over 200,000 people have died, there are some two million people displaced".

Ontem o Senhor Blair argumentou: “A situação em Darfur é intolerável. Quase 200.000 morreram, há quase dois milhões de pessoas desalojadas”.


"The actions of the Sudanese government are completely unacceptable. It is, in my view, essential for the international community to take a new resolution on Darfur to the UN Security Council. We need to extend the sanctions regime.

“As ações do governo sudanês são completamente inaceitáveis. Isto é, em minha opinião, essencial para que a comunidade internacional tome nova resolução sobre Darfur no Conselho de Segurança da ONU. Nós precisamos colocar sanções ao regime.”


"It is a test for us as a community also for the UN. I think there is a feeling in some quarters that this issue will just somehow go off the international agenda.

“Isto é um teste para nós como uma comunidade e também para a ONU. Eu penso que há um sentimento em alguns lugares que este acontecimento de algum modo estará na agenda internacional.”


Today has shown it will not. It will stay until something is done."

“Hoje não mostramos isto. Isto acontecerá até que algo seja feito”.


Romano Prodi, the Italian Prime Minister, described Darfur as a "chronic drama".

Romano Prodi, o primeiro ministro italiano, descreveu Darfur como um “drama crônico”.


Four years of war and terror

The Darfur conflict is an armed struggle in western Sudan, largely between the Janjaweed ("devils on horseback"), a militia group recruited by the government from Bedouin Arabs, and the mostly land-tilling tribes of the region.



Quatro anos de guerra e terror

O conflito em Darfur é uma luta armada no oeste do Sudão, entre o Janjaweed (“demônios sobre o cavalo”), a um grupo de milícia recrutado pelo governo junto a beduínos árabes, e tribos da região.


* ORIGINS OF THE STRUGGLE

The conflict began in 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) attacked government forces in Darfur. Unlike in the Second Sudanese Civil War, which was fought between the primarily Muslim north and Christian and Animist south, in Darfur most people are Muslim, as are the Janjaweed.



*Origem do conflito

O conflito começou em 2003 quando o SLA – Sudan Liberation Army atacou as forces do governo em Darfur. Ao contrário da Segunda Guerra Civil Sudanesa, a qual foi lutada os muçulmanos do norte e cristãos e animistas do sul, em Darfur mais pessoas são muçulmanos, como são os Janjaweed.



* REFUGEES

Between February and April 2003 refugees began arriving in eastern Chad. Large numbers of civilians became internally displaced within Darfur. Another rebel group, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) emerged in Darfur. By May 2003 the first air raids were being conducted on African villages.



*Refugiados

Entre fevereiro e abril de 2003 os refugiadores começaram a chegar no Chad leste. Grande número de civis tornou-se desalojado dentro de Darfur. Outro grupo rebelde, o JEM - Justice and Equality Movemente surgiu em Darfur. Em maio de 2003 o primeiro ataque aéreo foi conduzido sobre as vilas africanas.


* UNITED NATIONS

The Security Council called on Khartoum to disarm the Janjaweed. In January 2005 a UN report accused the government and militias of systematic abuses in Darfur, but stopped short of calling the violence genocide. Recommended that the Security Council refer the situation in Darfur to the International Criminal Court.



*Nações Unidas

O Conselho de Segurança chamou Khartoum para desarmar Janjaweed. Em Janeiro de 2005 um relatório da ONU acusou o governo e milícias de abusos sistemáticos em Darfur, mas não chamou a violência de genocídio. Recomendou que o Conselho de Segurança enviasse a situação em Darfur para o Corte Internacional Criminal.


* CASUALTIES

Sudan says no more than 9,000 people have been killed; most NGOs and the United Nations use 200,000 to more than 400,000. As many as 2.5 million are thought to have been displaced as of October 2006.

*Casualidades

O Sudão disse que não mais do que 9000 pessoas foram mortas; mas as ONGs e as ONU dizem entre 200.000 e 400.000. Cerca de 2,5 milhões de pessoas foram desalojadas até outubro de 2006.


* AFRICAN UNION

After fighting worsened last year the Security Council called for a new 17,300-strong UN peacekeeping force to replace ineffectual 7,000-troop African Union mission.

*União Africana

Após lutas piores do ano passado o Conselho de Segurança chamou uma nova força de paz de 17300 para substituir a não efetiva tropa de 7000 homens da missão da União Africana.




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