McKim cap 16 21/11 Prova (questões não respondidas)
Bibliografia selecionada Almeida SP & Silva, MTA. Ecstasy (MDMA): Effects and patterns of use reported by users in São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 2003, 25, 11-17.
Almeida SP & Silva MTA. “Êxtase” (MDMA): histórico, efeitos e mecanismo de ação. Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica 2000: 8, 393-402.
Almeida SP, Garcia-Mijares M & Silva, MTA. Patterns of ecstasy use and associated harm: results of a Brazilian online survey. Substance Use & Misuse 2009, 44, no prelo.
Alves CRR & Silva MTA. A esquizofrenia e seu tratamento farmacológico. Estudos de Psicologia 2001, 18, 12-22.
Carvalho, Simone Villas Boas de et al. Freqüência de jogo patológico entre farmacodependentes em tratamento. Rev. Saúde Pública 2005: 39, 217-222.
Cavalcante NC & Tourinho EZ. Classificação e diagnóstico em clínica: possibilidades de um modelo analítico-comportamental. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa 1998, 14, 139-147.
Cordioli, A. Volpato (Org.). Psicofármacos: consulta rápida, 3a. ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2005.
Davis DM. Intrigue at the immune synapse. Scientific American 2006, February, 30-37.
DeLucia R., Alves, C.R.R., & Silva, M.T.A. Antipsicóticos. In DeLucia R, Oliveira-Filho RM, Planeta CS, Gallacci M & Avellar MCW (Eds.). Farmacologia integrada 3ª. edição (p.233-245). Rio de Janeiro: Revinter, 2007.
Ferster, C.B. A functional analysis of depression. American Psychologist 1973, 28, 857-870.
Gonçalves FG & Silva MTA. Mecanismos fisiológicos do reforço. In: Kerbauy, R.R. e Wielenska, R.C. (Org.) Sobre comportamento e cognição IV. Santo André: ARBytes, 1999, p. 278-287.
Gorenstein, C. Princípios gerais da ação de fármacos. In Cordás TA & Moreno RA (Org). Condutas em psiquiatria. São Paulo: Lemos, 1993 (p. 15-31).
Graeff FG. Drogas psicotrópicas e seu modo de ação (2ª edição). São Paulo, EPU, 1990.
Graeff FG & Guimarães FS. Fundamentos de psicofarmacologia. São Paulo: Atheneu, 1999.
Hyman SE & Nestler EJ. The molecular foundations of psychiatry. Washington: American Psychiatric Press, 1993 (excelente texto avançado)
Stein DJ, Lerer B & Stahl SM. Evidence-based psychopharmacology. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2005.
LILLY -- psicof e o mercado
Its short-term outlook may be sluggish, but even that is remarkable given Lilly's near-death experience in 2000. When one of its key patents on Prozac was overturned in court, roughly a third of its share value vanished; within a month, the firm had lost 70% of sales to generic rivals. With hindsight, Mr Taurel says it should have been better prepared, and introduced more quickly its successor drugs to Prozac.
It is a mistake he is determined to avoid repeating. Today, each new product going into mid-stage clinical trials has a team of scientists, marketers and regulatory experts who work together to map out its future, from scrutiny at the FDA to patent expiry, ensuring that their molecule lives up to its full potential. This approach to managing product life-cycles is arguably more effective than the desperate machinations of some pharmaceutical companies to spin out patents on their ageing stars.
The function of dreaming
Nov 1st 2001
From The Economist print edition
Are dreams related to learning and memory?
IN 1865 Friedrich August von Kekulé, a German chemist, was puzzling over the structure of a compound that contained six carbon and six hydrogen atoms. It seemed impossible to fit these together in a way that respected the rules of chemical bonding. Legend has it that the answer came to him in a dream: as he sat dozing in front of the fire, he had a vision of two entwined serpents biting each other's tails. He awoke to the realisation that the molecule must be shaped like a ring. By solving the structure of benzene, a hexagon with alternating single and double bonds, Kekulé won a place in the annals of two disciplines: chemistry and dream research.
Such anecdotes are often cited by psychologists to support the theory that it is while dreaming that the brain consolidates information it has absorbed during waking hours. But in this week's Science, Jerome Siegel, a neuroscientist at the University of California, Los Angeles, rebuts this claim. Dr Siegel says that the evidence does not yet show that dreaming is needed for the consolidation of memories. In particular, he attacks the idea that “rapid-eye movement” (REM) sleep, when dreams usually occur, is necessary for learning.
For a start, says Dr Siegel, dream research is a methodological nightmare. Take the hypothesis that periods of intensive learning are correlated with longer periods of REM sleep. One way to test this idea is to measure levels of REM sleep in laboratory animals which have been through novel “learning situations”, and compare them with controls which have not. Yet these learning situations typically force animals to work out how to avoid electric shocks, or to perform some clever trick to get a bit of food. The stress of these experiences, Dr Siegel argues, could produce increases in REM sleep: the learning itself may have nothing to do with it.
Testing the reverse hypothesis—that preventing REM sleep blocks memory formation—poses similar problems. Some researchers have deprived rats of REM sleep by placing them on a small platform in a tub of water. In rats, as in humans, REM sleep relaxes the muscles. When the rat on the platform goes into REM sleep and relaxes, it falls into the water. Rats who get doused in this fashion show worse memory retrieval than rats who sleep undisturbed on a larger platform. The lack of REM sleep may be to blame, but another study suggests that the discomfort of being confined to a small platform, fatigue and the shock of getting wet have more to do with it, says Dr Siegel. When a team of researchers came up with a less stressful way of blocking REM sleep in rats, by gently rocking the animals awake when they drifted off, the REM-deprived rats did no worse than usual on the memory tasks.
Dream researchers do have one powerful methodological advantage over researchers in many other scientific disciplines: in this field, humans are actually easier to experiment on than laboratory animals. Unfortunately, studies of learning in people deprived of REM sleep have produced decidedly mixed results. Some striking evidence has emerged, however. Dr Siegel points to the case of a patient who had been hit by flying shrapnel and suffered a brain lesion that prevented him from entering REM sleep. Neurologists build entire careers out of studying the consequences of such accidents, but in this case, the pickings were slim. After his injury, the patient completed law school, became a practising lawyer and even ran the logic-puzzle section of a local newspaper. A decade of close observation has found no memory problems at all.
Still more telling, says Dr Siegel, is the evidence from studies of antidepressants, such as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors and benzodiazepines. MAO inhibitors, which have been on the market for decades, completely inhibit REM sleep in the doses taken by depressives. Benzodiazepines have no effect on REM sleep. Yet patients who take MAO inhibitors do not seem to suffer from memory trouble, while those who take benzodiazepines can do. Some studies suggest that MAO inhibitors might even enhance memory function. Alas, no dozing dream researcher has managed to repeat Kekulé's feat in his own discipline, and awoken with some insight into why this might be.
Econ 1 nov 2001
Drogas legais e ilegais: aspectos políticos e econômicos.