Progress Report



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Mato Grosso
A equipe de Mato Grosso participou do Primeiro Workshop de Torres do LBA, em Cachoeira Paulista com cinco representantes (Moacir Lacerda, Sérgio Roberto de Paulo, Paulo Cezar Nunes, Clóvis Lasta Fritzen e Nicolau Priante Filho). A grande expectativa da equipe foi trocar informações com os pesquisadores de outros sítios experimentais do LBA, particularmente após a aprovação, em 2001, de projetos proverão recursos para a instalação de mais duas torres em Mato Grosso. No âmbito do Instituto do Milênio do LBA, financiado pelo CNPq, serão efetuados estudos de fluxos de energia e de massa em uma torre de 50m de altura construída em área de floresta no município de Alta Floresta. Sob a coordenação da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), as pesquisas em Alta Floresta contarão com a participação de professores e alunos da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso (UNEMAT). No âmbito do Projeto CARBO-ROMT, financiado pela ALTERRA e pela ONF-Brasil, será construída e equipada uma torre em uma área de recomposição florestal para a realização de estudos similares aos da torre de Alta Floresta.

O ano de 2001 foi um ano marcante para os pesquisadores da UFMT, segundo o Dr. Nicolau Priante Filho. Além dos projetos aprovados para a instalação de outros sítios experimentais naquele Estado, A equipe conseguiu a publicação dos primeiros artigos sobre torres da primeira fase do LBA. São eles:


Title: Seasonal variations in the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a mature Amazonian transitional tropical forest (cerradao).

Authors: Vourlitis, G.L.;Priante, Filho N.;Hayashi, M. M. S.;Nogueira, J. D.;Caseiro, F. T. ;Campelo Jr., J. H.

Journal: Functional Ecology

Year: 2001

Pages 388-395
Title: Seasonal variations in the evapotranspiration of a transitional tropical forest of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Authors: Vourlitis G. L, N. Priante-Filho, M. M. S. Hayashi, J. de Sousa Nogueira, F. T. Caseiro, and J. H. Campelo, Jr.

Journal: Water Resources Research

Year: In press (expected 2002)




Olá Yara

Segue abaixo o relatório que enviamos para a NASA, com outras informações que você achar interessante incluir na reportagem.


Progress Report:
Investigation Group: CD-12
PIs:

George L. Vourlitis - California State University

Nicolau Priante Filho - Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

1. Narrative of activities:

This cooperative project between California State University-San Marcos (CSUSM) and the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT) is designed to quantify the effects of land cover change on a variety of biophysical processes of Amazonian tropical transitional forest (cerradão). Our study site is located approximately 50 km NNE of Sinop, Mato Grosso in a transitional (ecotonal) region that separates the tropical rain forest and savanna. Our research site is in mature, undisturbed transitional tropical forest that is approximately 28-30 m tall.


Measurements began in August 1999 and continue to date. Measurements include:

• Net CO2 exchange, evapotranspiration, and energy exchange from measured using eddy covariance,

• The vertical concentration of CO2 above and below the canopy.

• Micrometeorology (incoming, reflected, and transmitted radiation,

temperature, relative humidity, precipitation),

• Above ground fine (e.g., leaf and twig) litter fall and decomposition,

• Leaf gas exchange (photosynthesis, transpiration, conductance

• Plant water potential,

• Soil CO2 efflux,

• Soil water content and water table depth monitoring

• Field estimates of the spatial and temporal variability in the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the canopy (FPAR) for satellite image analysis and future extrapolation of the tower results

• Lightning activity monitoring

• Evaluation of the spatial variability of soil physical and chemical properties of primary forest



Our eddy covariance data of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration indicate that seasonal variations in rainfall have important implications on the seasonal pattern of NEE for cerradão. For example, the NEE and evapotranspiration of the transitional forest was more similar to tropical rain forest during the wet season, but during the dry season, the NEE and evapotranspiration of the transitional forest was more similar to that reported for tropical savanna. Our data also indicate the NEE of cerradão was in balance over the last 2 years, and that a warmer and dryer microclimate and decline in leaf area index (LAI) that accompany land cover change will cause transitional forests to be sources of CO2 to the atmosphere.


We began to study the litter production and decomposition in October 2000 to estimate the role played by the litter decomposition in the overall carbon emission. Litter production is currently estimated from 20-1 m2 litter traps installed in a 1 ha plot. Fallen litter is collected monthly, sorted, and the dry mass of leaves, twigs, flowers and fruits is determined. Decomposition incubations were initiated at the same time. Fresh litter collected from the forest floor was weighed, placed into 5 mm fiberglass mesh bags, and returned to the forest floor. Five bags are harvested each month, dried, and weighed to determine the rate of mass loss. Data suggest that rates of litter fall are strongly correlated with seasonal variations in rainfall, and the rate of litter decay is lower compared to decomposition rates published for tropical rain forest. Preliminary estimates suggest that the CO2 released from litter decomposition makes up approximately 10-25% of the total ecosystem CO2 efflux.
Measurements of soil water table depth underneath the canopy and in cleared areas are being used assess the effect of forest cover on water table depth and the flow of water through the study area. We are comparing the results from two techniques, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), to determine the best method for routinely measuring spatial and temporal variations in water table depth. Preliminary results from measurements made in May and October 2000 suggest that spatial differences in water table are caused more by topography than canopy cover.
Measurements of the spatial and temporal variability in the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the canopy (FPAR) began in the summer of 2001. Continuous PAR measurements are conducted at the tower and in 3 different temporary positions using PAR sensors installed above and below the forest canopy. After the start of PAR measurements, we will get satellite images from two different sensors as part of the CBERS System. We will conduct all pre-processing of the data (data georeferencing and radiometric corrections) to guarantee the comparability of the results (spectral signatures) collected over the different dates. We will estimate leaf area index (LAI) from the extinction of PAR by the forest canopy link the spatial and temporal variations in FPAR and/or LAI to the satellite-derived spectral signatures.
A study designed to quantify the frequency of convective storm development and lighting activity was initiated in September 2001. The main objective is to study the dependence of severity of possible damage produced for lightning (equipment failure and loss of data) with distance of cumulus nimbus clouds showing lightning activity. Protection of measurement systems against lightning discharge includes surge protectors, shielding of electric conductors and geometric design of electric circuit. A Video Tape records continuously the growth of cloud and lightning activity around tower using 4 micro-cameras (3.6 mm) pointing to N, S, E and W. The tape recorder stores one simultaneous image of the four cameras at 1.42 s, showing the screen divided in four parts. It allows to store 168 hours (1 week) in a single tape of two hours. These data will be useful for protecting equipment from lightning damage. These data may also be useful for climate modelers interested in assessing the frequency of mesoscale climate events and how these events are triggered by local meteorological variables.
We are also in the process of establishing sampling and analysis techniques to determine the spatial variation in physical and chemical soil characteristics across a variety of spatial scales. Soil samples were collected along a grid within a 1 ha area adjacent to the tower from surface (0-5 cm), 5-10 cm, and 10-20 cm depths, and soil samples were analyzed in the UFMT Soil Laboratory. We are using geostatistics to model the spatial distribution of soil parameters at our study site.
The baseline information that we have been collecting is crucial for understanding a variety of biophysical processes in the transitional forest region. Little is known regarding the transitional tropical forest region even though transitional forest comprises about 12% of the cerrado area and contains nearly 22% of the total cerrado biomass. These forests also lie in the “arc of deforestation” which experienced some of the most rapid deforestation over the last 2-3 decades. With CNPq and NSF support, we are in the process of equipping a pasture system located approximately 10 km from our forest site with similar sensors to assess how forest clearing to pasture alters mass (CO2 and H2O vapor) and energy exchange and other biophysical processes. Our future goals are to expand upon these measurements to include a selectively-logged forest and a crop ecosystem to determine the effect of the full range of land cover change in the northern Mato Grosso region on mass and energy exchange.
2. Description of any difficulties encountered or any issues to resolve (if needed):

During the wet seasons we used to have problems accessing our study site because of bad road conditions. After January 2001 we got two Toyota trucks from PROSOL (a Mato Grosso governmental institution), and with minor repairs, we can now routinely access our research site during the wet season.


The power system at our field site, difficult import/export conditions (long delays) and lightning have caused, and in some cases continue to cause, difficulties in our research campaign. The power system was recently upgraded with solar panels donated by Telemat (Mato Grosso telephone company) and new batteries, and although the new system is more robust, improvements can still be made. Lightning strikes during the wet season periodically cause equipment damage even though we have relatively good lighting protection. It is also possible that lightning activity in the vicinity of tower could also be the cause of some data loses even without equipment damage. We have a researcher who is an expert in lighting protection, and he will be helping us protect to further our equipment in the coming months. In some cases, the damaged equipment can be fixed in the field, however some equipment has had to be returned to the US for factory repair. The delays in getting the equipment imported and exported to and from Brazil have been unbelievable, and in some cases, delays of several months have been experienced. We have tried to solve this problem by purchasing spare pieces of sensitive equipment (i.e. equipment that is likely to be damaged by the tropical environment and/or likely has returned to the US for repair), but this has proven to be costly.
Installing the PAR sensors above the canopy in places lacking tower access was a big challenge, however we built a rope ladder to solve the problem of remotely accessing the top of the forest canopy.

Until now, the UFMT LBA team didn’t get adequate support for their researchers, but they are using many equipment and some funds that they are getting for other projects. The students and researchers are sharing the equipment use and they help themselves. In this way the Mato Grosso team is growing up and is motivating researchers from other areas to join them.


3. Participants: Please include participant names, university affiliation, nationality, and for students, include degree sought and provisional thesis title.
Name: Jose Holanda Campelo Jr.

Role: Co-Investigator

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality: BRAZIL

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Eduardo Jacusiel Miranda

Role: undergraduate student

University/Organization: UFMT

Nationality: BRAZIL

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Jose de Souza Nogueira

Role: Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality: BRAZIL

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Nicolau Priante Filho

Role: SA-PI/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality: BRAZIL

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: George L. Vourlitis

Role: US-PI

University/Organization: California State University

Nationality: United States

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Mauro Massao Shiota Hayashi

Role:Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality:Brazil

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Fernando Tadeu Caseiro

Role: Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality: Brazil

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Sérgio Roberto de Paulo

Role:Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality:Brazil

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Pierre Girard

Role:Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality:Brazil

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Moacir Lacerda

Role:Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality:Brazil

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Shozo Shiraiwa

Role: Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality: Brazil

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Eduardo Guimarães Couto

Role:Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality:Brazil

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Peter Zeilhofer

Role:Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality:Brazil

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Clovis Lasta Fritzen

Role:Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality:Brazil

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: George Sanches Suli

Role:Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality:Brazil

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Carlo Ralph De Musis

Role:Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality:Brazil

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Luiz Carlos Pereira

Role:Co-Investigator/Scientist

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality:Brazil

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Fernando Raiter

Role: undergraduate student

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality: BRAZIL

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Wander Roeger

Role: undergraduate student

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality: BRAZIL

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):


Name: Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

Role: undergraduate student

University/Organization: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Nationality: BRAZIL

Degree Sought (if student):

Provisional Thesis Title (if student):




4. Description of training activities conducted, including lectures,

public outreach, and short courses:
An intensive 2-week course of ecophysiological theory (week 1) and field research techniques (week 2) entitled "Instrumentation and Analysis of Ecophysiological Data" was offered by G. Vourlitis for graduate students and faculty of the Tropical Agriculture program of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil (UFMT). During the lecture portion of the class, students were exposed to theory describing how the water use and photosynthesis of tropical plants are altered by variations in temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and drought. During the laboratory portion of the class, students were trained in the use of field equipment (e.g., portable photosynthesis systems and thermocouple psychrometers) to measure rates of photosynthesis, transpiration, soil respiration, and plant water potential. Students used this equipment to measure the CO2 and water use of tropical forest trees, and more importantly, students now use this equipment routinely for their thesis research. A similar course will be offered in January 2002, and although the course has not formally been approved by UFMT, students and faculty will be exposed to eddy covariance measurement theory, techniques, and data analysis.
The Physics Department of UFMT submitted a proposal to CAPES for a Physics and Environmental Graduate (M.Sc.) Course. Most of the professors of that proposal are from UFMT LBA team. The general objective of that program is to form a M.Sc. degree to study the functioning of the regional ecosystems from a physical perspective. The course also will also highlight the importance of global change, such as deforestation, the impacts of human activities on these ecosystems, and societal implications of land use and/or preservation of the regional environment. The course follows the objectives of the LBA Program and has received good scores from a CAPES referee that helped UFMT finish and submit the proposal. The LBA activities and projects are vital to consolidate that program. Certainly, if that course is approved, the LBA team will require complete support and funds to their projects in order to make a strong Physics and Environmental Graduate Course at UFMT. We expect implementation of that course in the first or the second semester of 2002.

5. Data set descriptions, including status of metadata registration and online data availability. LBA DIS policy encourages metadata registration for data sets in preparation.
Metadata registration was accomplished in February 2001. Although poster presentations have been sent to the DIS, data has not yet been sent.
6. List of publications (in print, in press, and in review) funded by NASA's LBA component. Please submit a PDF file of any publications in print.
Title: Seasonal variations in the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a mature Amazonian transitional tropical forest (cerradao).

Authors: Vourlitis, G.L.;Priante, Filho N.;Hayashi, M. M. S.;Nogueira, J. D.;Caseiro, F. T. ;Campelo Jr., J. H.

Journal: Functional Ecology

Year: 2001

Pages 388-395
Title: Seasonal variations in the evapotranspiration of a transitional tropical forest of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Authors: Vourlitis G. L, N. Priante-Filho, M. M. S. Hayashi, J. de Sousa Nogueira, F. T. Caseiro, and J. H. Campelo, Jr.

Journal: Water Resources Research

Year: In press (expected 2002)

Program (e.g. LBA,CLAIRE,TRMM,etc.): LBA

Funding Source: NASA; INPE; CAPES; FAPEMAT; CNPq


Title: The seasonal variations in the net CO2 exchange and canopy structural properties a transitional tropical forest of northern Mato Grosso, Brazil

Authors: Vourlitis G. L, N. Priante-Filho, M. M. S. Hayashi, J. de Sousa Nogueira, F. T. Caseiro, F. Raiter and J. H. Campelo, Jr.

Journal: Ecological Applications

Year: In review

Program (e.g. LBA,CLAIRE,TRMM,etc.): LBA

Funding Source: NASA; INPE; FAPEMAT; CAPES; CNPq


Title: Monitoring litterfall and decomposition: contribution to the Transitional Tropical forest – Savanna (Cerrado)

Authors: Priante Filho, N, P. Girard, F. T. Caseiro, F. Raiter, W. Hoeger, J. de Sousa Nogueira, S. C. da Silva, C. L. Fritzen, G. L. Vourlitis

Journal: Ecological Applications

Year: In review



Program (e.g. LBA,CLAIRE,TRMM,etc.): LBA

Funding Source: NASA; INPE; FAPEMAT; CNPq



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