1st semester POWER, IDENTITY-FORMATION AND CONFLICTS IN THE EMERGENT WORLD ORDER
The present Programme was not designed for future International Relations specialists, but rather for future jurists. Its ambitions are modest, as it aims to provide little more than an introduction to an academic discipline – even if it does so in fairly rich and somewhat demanding manner. Mostly, it offers to provide students with a detailed series of analyses of contemporary international relations from the social-scientific perspective of International Relations (IR). It nevertheless tries to convey much of the gist of what IR has become: a lively and very technical subject-matter, one deeply concerned with the most pressing international political issues of today’s world.
These ambitions and aims will be carried out selectively during the semester. We live in a time of change and multi-centered conflicts and accordingly these form the hard core of what follows. The sessions, accordingly, focus a great deal of attention on issues pertaining to identity and its recognition in today’s world, and also on the many tensions and conflicts that beset us all as we try to cope with the very rapid national, sub-national, regional and global transformations which give us no respite. That is not all: the sessions and their ordering also give body to didactic constraints. ‘Narrative’ in style, the semestral introduction that follows is presented in both a wide-angle lens and an in-depth one – as we shall attempt to cover as many examples as it is possible in a semester of as detailed an analytical fashion as we can. Moreover, particular care is taken with concepts and the methodological specificities of International Relations as a discipline.
The Programme is organized into four major sections (I call them Parts). As noted, these follow a sequence, which is both a narrative one and one of increasing conceptual complexity. The first Part, as this is an introductory Programme designed for future jurists, maps out concepts and crucial notions relevant in International Relations theory; it consists of two subsets, linked to the chosen topic of the semester. The last Part, by far the biggest, includes a series of analyses of some of the most important ‘live fronts’ of contemporary international political dynamics.
For each session there is a must-read bibliography. At the end, added a few more references which are optional. All texts listed are either available at the “photocopy house” facing the Faculty, in the Library, or freely available for download at the sites indicated.
A FRAMEWORK: PERSPECTIVES AND CONCEPTS
SOME GENERAL OPERATIONAL NOTIONS
THE EMERGENCE OF THE DISCIPLNE OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. FROM INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM TO INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY. THE STATE, SOVEREIGNTY, FOREIGN POLICY, AND DIPLOMACY (1)
The historical rise of the discipline of International Relations (IR). International anarchy and international society. The Peace of Westphalia, and the international state system. Sovereignty and international politics. Diplomacy as a political instrument. Headley Bull, (1977), “The nature of order in world politics”, em The Anarchical Society. A study of order in world politics: 3-53, MacMillan, London.
Armando M. Marques Guedes (1984), “O estatuto científico das Relações Internacionais”, Nação e Defesa 28: 3-15, Instituto de Defesa Nacional, Lisboa.
Martin Hollis e Steven Smith (1990), “The growth of a discipline”, in Explaining and Understanding International Relations: 16-45, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Henry Kissinger (1994), “The new world order”, in Diplomacy: 17-29, Simon & Schuster, New York.
Armando Marques Guedes (2007),“A Teoria Internacional de Adriano Moreira: uma apresentação”, em Adriano Moreira, A Comunidade Internacional em Mudança: 7-34, Almedina, Lisboa.
Armando Marques Guedes (2008), Raising Diplomats. Political, genealogical and administrative constraints in training for diplomacy, Favorita Series, Diplomatiche Akademie, Vienna, Austria.
Armando Marques Guedes (2010), “Raising Diplomats as Fit”, Journal of International Relations, Warsaw, Poland (in print).
REALISM, LIBERALISM AND STRUCTURALISM. POWER, ITS PLACES AND SCOPE. FROM BALANCE OF POWER TO COLLECTIVE SECURITY. THE RISE AND PROGRESSION OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS (2)
The three “classical” theoretical paradigms in the study of IR. The progression of international scenarios. “hegemonic domination” by the US and the liberal proposals for “wars and other immoralities of international anarchy”. From the League of Nations to the United Nations. Power distribution in the world and the emergent forms of its exercise. Chris Pentland (1991, original 1976), “International organizations and their roles ”, in(ed.)R. Little and M. Smith, Perspectives on World Politics: 242-249, Routledge.
Joseph S. Nye (1992, original 1990) “O Mundo pós-Guerra Fria: uma nova ordem no Mundo?”, Política Internacional 5(1): 79-97 [from the original US edition, entitled The Sources of American Power].
Henry Kissinger (1994), “”The new face of diplomacy: Wilson and the Treaty of Versailles”, op. cit.: 218-246, “The dilemmas of the victors”, op. cit.: 246-266, e “America re-enters the arena: Franklin Delano Roosevelt”, op. cit.: 369-394.
Joseph S. Nye (1997), “Balance of power and World War I”, “The failure of collective security and World War II” and “The Cold War”, and Understanding International Conflict. An introduction to theory and history: 50-71, 74-95 e 98-129., Longman.
____________(2002), “Redefining the national interest”, in The Paradox of American Power. Why the world’s only superpower can’t go it alone: 137-173, Oxford University Press.
Edward Keene (2002), Beyond the Anarchical Society. Grotius, colonialism and order in world politics, Cambridge University Press.
Armando Marques Guedes (2007),“As Organizações Internacionais de hoje: de onde e para onde?”, Portugal e as Relações Internacionais, em Negócios Estrangeiros 11.2: 27-45, Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros, Lisboa.
A FEW SPECIFIC CONTROVERSIES AND NOTIONS NATIONALISM, ETHNICITY, AND IDENTITY: CONTEXTS AND TYPOLOGIES (3)
The old and new formats of nationalism, ethnic affiliations and other modalities of constitution and affirmation of sociopolitical identities. Their explanations and their configurations and roles in modern political communities. Nationalisms and the end of the bipolar world: tradition or change? The advantages of dynamic comparisons. Ernest Renan (1994, original 1883), Qu’est-ce qu’une nation?, in (ed.) J. Hutchinson and A. Smith, Nationalism: 17-18, Oxford University Press [from here onward (1)].
Hans Kohn (1945), “Western and Eastern nationalisms”, in The Idea of Nationalism: 18-20, 329-331, MacMillan, New York.
Frederik Barth (1996, original 1969), “Ethnic groups and boundaries” in (ed.) J. Hutchinson and A. Smith, Ethnicity: 69-74, Oxford University Press [doravante (2)].
Walker Connor (1978), “A nation is a nation, is a state, is an ethnic group, is a …”, Ethnic and Racial Studies 1-4: 379-388.
Anthony Smith (1991), “National and other identities”, in National Identity: 1-18, Penguin.
Benedict Anderson (1991), “The origins of national consciousness”, in Imagined Communities. Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism: 36-46, Verso London.
Michael Ignatieff (1993), “Civic and ethnic nationalism”, in Blood and Belonging: journeysinto the new nationalism: 5-14, The Noonday Press, New York.
Eric Hobsbawm (1997), “An anti-nationalist account of nationalism since 1989”, in (eds.) M. Guibernov and J. Rex, The Ethnicity Reader: nationalism, multiculturalism and migration: 69-79, Polity Press, Cambridge.
Benedict Anderson (2001), “Western nationalism and Eastern nationalism. Is there a difference that matters?”, New Left Review 9: 31-42, London.
ON THE VARIOUS INTERPRETATIONS OF NATIONALISM AND ETHNICITY. FROM PRIMORDIALISM TO INSTRUMENTALISM AND CONSTRUCTIVISM (4)
Three major theoretical paradigms? Are identities better understood as expressions of timeless feelings of belonging to social units, pragmatic choices responding to rational choices, or sociocultural and political constructs? Are these alternative or complementary takes on the roots of identity?
Clifford Geertz (1963), “The integrative revolution: primordial sentiments and civic politics in the new states”, em (ed.) C. Geertz, Old Societies and New States: the quest for modernity in Asia and Africa: 107-113, Free Press, New York.
Donald Horowitz (1985), “A family resemblance”, in Ethnic Groups in Conflict: 55-89, University of California Press [now onward (3)].
Michael Hechter (1996,original 1986), “Ethnicity and rational choice theory”, em (2): 90-98.
Manning Nash (1996, original 1989), “The core elements of ethnicity”, in (2): 24-28.
Walker Connor (1996, original 1994), “Beyond reason: the nature of the ethnonational bond”, in (2): 69-75.
Will Kymlika (1997), “Liberal nationalism”, in States, Nations and Cultures: 13-43, Van Gorcum.
Jack Goody (2001), “Bitter icons”, New Left Review 7: 5-15, London.
THE END OF THE BIPOLAR SETTING: RECONFIGURATIONS FOLLOWING THE IMPLOSION AND FRAGMENTATION OF THE TWO GREAT BLOCS
STATES AND ETHNO-RELIGIOUS-NATIONAL CONFLICTS: COMPARING COLONIAL AND POST-COLONIAL CONTEXTS (5)
Some contemporary scenarios: a first look at the new emergent conflicts. Causes and mechanisms; the levels of analysis. From colonial to post-colonial settings? Donald Horowitz (1985), “Group comparison and sources of ethnic conflict”, in (3):141-184.
Benedict Anderson (1991), “Census, map, museum” in Imagined Communities. Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism: 163-187, Verso, London.
_____________(2000, original 1993), “Imagining East Timor”, Cepesa, Lisboa.
Mary Kay Gilliland (1995), “Nationalism and ethnogenesis in the former Yugoslavia”, in (eds.) L. Romanucci-Rossi e G. A. de Vos, Ethnic Identity: creation, conflict and accomodation: 197:221, Atheneum Press, London.
Paul Flenley (1997), “From Soviet to Russian identity. The origins of contemporary Russian nationalism and national identity”, in (ed.) R. Jenkins e S. Sofos, Nations and Identity in Contemporary Europe: 223-249, Routledge, London.
Mahmood Mamdani (2001), “Thinking about genocide”, in When Victims Become Killers: 2-18, Princeton University Press.
George Friedman (2009), The next 100 years, a forecast for the 21st century, Stratfor.
THE GENERAL COMMON DENOMINATORS: TRADITION AGAINST MODERNTY, ECONOMICS, POLITICS, DEVELOPMENT, AND SELF-DETERMINATION (6)
The usual forms of “anti-assimilationist resistance”. Anti-modernization as a defense of tradition, a yearning for economic well-being, or the expression of a “natural right” to “self-determination”? A growth of irredentism and secession or the appearance of supra-state forms of regional integration? Ernest Gellner (1964), “Nationalism and modernization” in Thought and Change: 158-169, Weidenfield and Nicholson, London.
_____________ (1983) “Nationalism and high cultures” in Nations and Nationalism: 48-49, 55-62, Blackwell, Oxford.
Robert Bates (1983), “Modernization and the rationality of ethnic competition in Africa” in (eds.) D. Rothschild e V. Olorunsola, State vs. Ethnic Claims: African policy dilemmas: 152-171, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Hakan Wiberg (1996, original 1983), “Self-determination as an international issue” in (2):321-326.
Donald Horowitz (1985), “Tradition and modernization”, in (3): 96-105.
______________ (1985), “Group entitlement and the sources of conflict”, in (3):185-201.
_______________(1985), “The logic of secessions and irredentas” in (3): 229-288.
James Mayall e Mark Simpson (1992), “Ethnicity is not enough: reflections on protracted secessionism in the Third World”, in (ed.) A. Smith, Ethnicity andNationalism: 5-25, E.J. Brill, Leiden.
Charles Tilly (1993), “National self-determination as a problem for us all”, Daedalus 3: 29-36, New York.
Hurst Hannum (1996) “Self-determination” em Autonomy, Sovereignty and Self-Determination: the accommodation of conflicting rights: 27-49, University of Pennsylvania Press.
Katherine Verdery (1993), “Ethnic relations, economies of shortage, and the transition in Eastern Europe”, in (ed.) C. Hann, Socialism: ideals, ideologies, and local practices: 172-186, Routledge, London.
David Brown (1994) “Class, state and ethnic politics in peninsular Malaysia” em The State and Ethnic Politics in Southeast Asia: 206-257, New York.
Giovanni Arrighi (2002), “The African crisis. World systemic and regional aspects”, New Left Review 15: 5-36, London.
Paula Escarameia (2003), “O que é a autodeterminação”, em O Direito Internacional Público nos Princípios do Século XXI: 123-163, Almedina, Coimbra.
THE MULTIPLE IMAGES OF CONFLICTS, STATES AND THEIR CONFLICT REGULATION MODELS ETHNIC CLEANSING AND GENOCIDES, VIOLENCE AND URBAN RIOTING (7)
Comparative structure and dynamics of contemporary genocides. The political logics of intolerance and premeditation. The specter of the Holocaust. Riots and their organization and symbolic dimensions: an internal view. John Spencer (1990), “Collective violence and everyday practice in Sri Lanka”, Modern Asian Studies 3: 602-623.
Mark Juergensmeyer (1993), “Why religious confrontations are violent”, in The NewCold War? Religious nationalism confronts the secular states: 153-170, Berkeley and Los Angeles, The University of California Press.
Stanley J. Tambiah (1996), “Some general features of ethnic riots and riot crowds”, in Leveling Crowds: ethnonationalist conflicts and collective violence in south Asia: 213-221, Berkeley and Los Angeles, The University of California Press.
_____________(1996), “Routinization and ritualization of violence”, em ibid.: 230-243.
Valeri Tishkov (1997), “The culture of ethnic violence: the Osh conflict”, in Ethnicity, Nationalism and Conflict in and after the Soviet Union: the mind aflame: 135-154, Oxford University Press.
Joane Nagel (1998), “Masculinity and nationalism: gender and sexuality in the making of nations”, Ethnic and Racial Studies 21(2): 242-269.
Mart Bax (2000), “Warlords, priests and the politics of ethnic cleansing: a case-study from rural Bosnia-Hercegovina”, Ethnic and Racial Studies 23-1:16-36.
Ger Duijzings (2000), “The exodus of Kosovo’s Croats: a chronicle of ethnic unmixing”, in Religion and the Politics of Identity in Kosovo: 37-65, Hurst & Company, London.
Jeffrey Sluka (2000), “’For God and Ulster’: the culture of terror and loyalist death squads in Northern Ireland”, in (ed.) J. Sluka, Death Squad. The anthropology of state terror: 127-158, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
AUTONOMIC OR FEDERALIST SOLUTIONS, POWER-SHARING AND ELITE ACCOMMODATION, TERRITORIAL ARRANGEMENTS, INDIGENIZATION AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION,PLURALIST MODELS AND DEMOCRACY (8)
The varieties of State reactions to identity and recognition threats to both unity and stability. Pragmatism or accountability? Or, instead, the will to survive as a pretext for clamping down? Donald Horowitz (1985), “Perspectives on ethnic accommodation”, in (3): 566-576.
_______________ “Electoral systems and conflict reduction”, ibid.: 628-651.
______________(1985), “Preferential policies to reduce ethnic conflict”, in (3) 566-576.
Arend Lijphart (1989), “The power-sharing approach”, in (ed.) J. Montville, Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies: 93-106, The Free Press.
Kenneth McRae (1989), “Theories of power-sharing”, in (ed.) J. Montville, ibid.: 491-510.
Diane Mauzy (1993), “Malay political hegemony and coercive consociationalism” in (eds.) J. McGarry e B. O’Leary, The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation: 106-127, Routledge, London.
Ralph Premdas (1993), “Balance and ethnic conflict in Fiji” in (eds.) J. McGarry e B. O’Leary, op. cit.: 251-274.
S. J. Noel (1993), “Canadian responses to ethnic conflict: consociationalism, federalism and control”, in (eds.) J. McGarry and B. O’Leary The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation: 41-62, Routledge, London.
John Coakley (1993), “Introduction”, in (ed.) J. Coakley, The Territorial Management of EthnicConflict: 1-22, Frank Cass & Co..
A. Jeyaratnam Wilson (1993) “Ethnic strife in Sri Lanka: the politics of space”, in (ed.) J. Coakley, ibid.: 144-169, Frank Cass & Co..
Martin Dent (1996), “Ethnicity and territorial politics in Nigeria”, in (ed.) G. Smith Federalism: the multi-ethnic challenge: 157-179, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co..
R. William Riddle (1997), “Coercion, co-optation and the management of ethnic relations in Indonesia”, in (eds.) M. Brown and S. Ganguly, Government Policies andEthnic Relations in Asia and the Pacific: 273-320, Harvard University Press.
EMERGENT INTERNATIONAL SCENARIOS, GEOPOLITCS AND RELIGION: PROSPECTIVE TAKES
ARE WE WITNESSING THE RISE OF NEW TYPES OF POLITICAL COMMUNITY? (9)
Are “traditional” political communities being recast? Are cosmopolitanism and tribal fragmentation growing? Are the Nation-State, contractualism and Democracy in crisis? Emergent traits of new political formats. The limits of utopia. Michael Mann (1999, original !997), “Has globalization ended the rise and rise of the nation-state?”, em (ed.) T. V. Paul and J. A Hall, International Order and the Future of World Politics: 237-262, Cambridge University Press.
Andrew Linklater (1998), “Community and citizenship in the post-Westphalian era” in The Tranformation of Political Community. Ethical foundations of the post-Westphalian era: 179-213, Cambridge, Polity Press.
José Manuel Pureza (1998), “Eternalizing Westphalia? International law in a period of turbulence”, Nação e Defesa 87: 31-49.
Zygmunt Bauman (2000), “Community”, in Liquid Modernity: 168-202, Polity Press.
Amitai Etzioni (2002), “Implications of the American anti-terrorism coalition for global architectures”, European Journal of Political Theory 1 (1): 9-31, London.
Armando Marques Guedes (2005), “Sobre a NATO e a União Europeia”, em Estudos sobre Relações Internacionais: 227-279, Instituto Diplomático, Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros, Lisboa, (original from 2001, published in Nação e Defesa).
Dimitris Triantaphyllou (2008), “The Crisis in the Caucasus - a new world order emerges”, http://dimitriosworld.blogspot.com/2008/08/crisis-in-caucasus-new-world-order_28.html
George Friedman (2010), “The Caucasus Cauldron”, Stratfor, http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/20100706_caucasus_cauldron?utm_source=GWeekly&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=100707&utm_content=readmore&elq=fd793f13f0d546c7bea0380fee3d83a0
THE KOSOVO CASE, INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: A GAME OF MIRRORS OR THE REFLECTIONS OF A GAME? (10)
Institutional formulas and normative formulations reflect and accompany global transformations. Maybe they even create or produce them. Or are they,, instead, just one more instrument used by a few key international actors in the emergent scenarios? A new international law and novel international organizations? The “right to intervene”. Bruno Simma (1999) , “NATO, the UN and the use of force: legal aspects”, European Journal of International Law 10 (1). 1-23, Oxford.
Antonio Cassese (1999), “Ex iniuria ius oritur: are we moving towards international legitimation of forcible humanitarian countermeasures in the world community?”, EuropeanJournal of International Law 10 (1). 23-31, Oxford.
Mario Bettati (2000), “Théorie et réalité du droit d’ingérence humanitaire”, Géopolitique 68: 17-27, Paris.
Ban Ki-moon e Martti Ahtisaari (2007), “Report of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General on Kosovo’s future status”, UN Security Council S/2007/168, em http://www.unosek.org/docref/report-english.pdf (20.09.08).
Matthew Light (2008), “Independent Russian Media React to Kosovo's Independence Declaration”, World Politics Review: 28th February, pp. 1-2, http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/article.aspx?id=1692
Armando Marques Guedes (2009),“Serbia, the EU, NATO and the hope of a bulk accession into the Union of the Western Balkans. Reflections around the Ljubljana Agenda for the New Phase in the Stabilization and Association Process”, in The Ljubljana Agenda for the New Phase in the Stabilization and Association Process, Evroski Pokret u Srbji & Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Berlin, Germany and Belgrade, Serbia [the paper also is available at http://www.emins.org/ljagenda/index.html].
CONTEMPORARY NATIONALISMS, ETHNICITY AND RELIGION. EROSION, OR RECASTING AND RESSURECTION? (11)
Weighting of some of the most influential interpretations on new types of conflictuality. Is the world fast breaking up into distinct “civilizational blocs” and are we witnessing the opening notes of a new international Concert? Is there na ongoing neo-tribalization? a homogeneizing globalization, instead? Or all of that simultaneously? SamuelHuntington (1993), “The Clash of Civilizations?”, Foreign Affairs 72(3): 1-25.
BenjaminBarber (1996), Jihad vs. McWorld. How globalism and tribalism are reshaping the World, Ballantine Books, New York, extractos.
DavidHeld, Anthony McGrew, David Goldblatt, e David Perraton, (1999), “Introduction: the globalization debate” em Global Transformations. Politics, Economy and Culture: 1-29, Polity Press.
Armando Marques Guedes (1999), “As religiões e o choque civilizacional”, em Religiões, Segurança e Defesa: 151-179, Instituto de Altos Estudos Militares, Atena, Lisboa.
_________________(2000), “As guerras culturais, a soberania e a globalização”, Boletim do Instituto de Altos Estudos Militares, 51: 165-162, Lisboa.
_________________(2002), “Wanders and wonders. Musing over nationalism and identity in the State of East Timor”, em G.A. Rodrigues e H. Wharton, Nationbuilding in East Timor: 1-20, Pearce Peacekeeping Centre, Canada.
RUSSIA AND THE RECENT INVASION OF GEORGIA. AN ETHNO-NATIONALIST CONFLICT OR THE DRESS-REHERSAL FOR A MULTIPOLAR FUTURE? (12)
The synchronized enlargements of the EU and NATO. The post-Soviet space. The European Neighbourhood Policy and the “strategic depth” of the Russian State. Oil and natural gas. Felix K. Chang (2008), “Russia Resurgent. An initial look at Russian military performance in Georgia”, Foreign Policy Research Institute: 1-6, Philadelphia, tirado de http://www.fpri.org/enotes/200808.chang.russiaresurgentgeorgia.html
Charles King (2008), “A comprehensive look at what's happening in Georgia and why...”, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, em http://www.salon.com/
Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas (2008), a transcription of the emergency session of the Security Council following the unilateral Russian recognition of South Ossetia and Abkhasia, titled “The Situation in Georgia, which took place on the 28th August 2008, available at http://www.undemocracy.com/securitycouncil/meeting_5969
Sergey Markedonov (2008), “Caucasus Conflict Breaks Old Rules of the Game” Russian Analytical Digest, 45: 2-6, Zurich, www.res.ethz.ch
Fariz Ismailzade (2008), “The Georgian-Russian conflict seen through the eyes of Baku (Azerbeijan)”, Eurasia Daily Monitor, Jamestown Foundation, Washington.
Armando Marques Guedes (2008),“O Conflito na Geórgia”, Cadernos do IDN, no. 1, II série, pp. 25-35, Instituto de Defesa Nacional, Ministério da Defesa, Lisboa [the article is also available online at http://www.idn.gov.pt/publicacoes/cadernos/CadernoIDN3.pdf].
Armando Marques Guedes and Radu Dudau (2010),“The Regional Aftermath of the ‘Five Day War’. Political, economic, and security overheads of the conflict in Georgia”, Boletim do Instituto de Estudos Superiores Militares 7: 165-211, Ministério da Defesa, Portugal.
George Friedman (2010), “The Caucasus Cauldron”, Stratfor, httpwww.stratfor.comweekly20100706_caucasus_cauldronutm_source=GWeekly&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=100707&utm_content=readmore&elq=fd793f13f0d546c7bea0380fee3d83a0
LEBANON, SYRIA, IRAQ, IRAN, AFGHANISTAN AND PAKISTAN. WHAT IS REALLY GOING ON IN THE REGION? THE INTRICATE INTERDEPENDENCE OF CONFLICTS (13)
The underlying tensions in the wide band running form the Wider Middle East into Central Asia. Is conflict interdependence a parcel of global complex interdependence? The interacting roles of Russia and the US, and China and India in the ‘region’ – is a new “Great Game” in the works? Armando Marques Guedes (2007),“A ‘Linha da Frente’. Do Sudoeste dos Balcãs à Ásia Central”, Geopolítica, 1: 19-77, Centro Português de Geopolítica, Lisboa.
Dmitry Medvedev (2008), “Speech at the Meeting with Russian Ambassadors and Permanent Representatives to International Organisations”, programmatic speech delivered on the 15th June 2008, Kremlin. President of Russia,http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/speeches/2008/07/15/1121_type82912type84779_204155.shtml
George Friedman (2008), “The Medvedev Doctrine and American Strategy”, Stratfor. Geopolitical Intelligence Report (edited on September 2, 2008), http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/medvedev_doctrine_and_american_strategy
Richard N. Haass and Martin Indyk (2009), “Beyond Iraq. A new US strategy for the Middle East”, in Foreign Affairs 88, 1: 41-59, New York.
Abdullah Toukan and Anthony H. Cordesman (2009), Study on a Possible Israeli Strike on Iran's Nuclear Development Facilities, Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Washington, available for download at http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/090316_israelistrikeiran.pdf
George Friedman (2010), “Rethinking American Options on Iran”, Stratfor, http://app.response.stratfor.com/e/es.aspx?s=1483&e=98319&elq=87ec91265bd04523b3cee4ffed38e5c9 MODERN RADICAL ‘ISLAMISM’: A NEW POLITICAL-MILITARY DEMEANOUR AND ITS ORGANIZATIONAL FORMS. THE NOVEL FACIES OF POST-MODERN RELIGIOUS IRREDENTISM? (14)
The uni-multipolar (or apolar) world and the rise of assymetrical threats like al-Qaeda. The evoving organization of these movements as an adaptive mechanism. A descentered device of outsourcing by copy-catting? Cascade effects generated by complex interdependence and its effects for Portugal. Mark Juergensmeyer (2003), “Religion in the new global order”, working paper ainda não publicado: 1-13, Weatherhead center for International Affairs, Harvard University.
Armando Marques Guedes (2006), “O Pensamento Estratégico Nacional. Que futuro?”, em José Manuel Freire Nogueira e João Vieira Borges, O Pensamento Estratégico Nacional: 143-199, Cosmos e Instituto de Defesa Nacional, Lisboa.
______________(2007), Ligações Perigosas. Conectividade, Coordenação e Aprendizagem em Redes Terroristas, Almedina, Coimbra.
_______________(2008), “Is there a global al-Qaeda? Some thoughts on the organizational limits of contemporary transnational terrorist groups”, Public Lectures 2008: 47-58, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sofia, Bulgaria [version française: “Existe-t-il une al-Qaida Mondiale? Quelques réfléxions sur les limites organizationelles des mouvements terroristes transnationaux contemporains”].
_______________(2009), “O Tempo e as Ressonâncias: os Estados Modernos, o Anarquismo, o Anarco-Sindicalismo e Jihadismo”, Geopolítica 3: 51-99, Centro Português de Geopolítica, Lisboa.
A GEOPOLITICAL FRAMING OF THE TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS IN THE GREATER MIDDLE EAST, THE WIDER CAUCASUS, AND CENTRAL ASIA (15)
The geopolitics of these conflicts. The old Silk Road and North-American strategy. Russian “privileged interests” in the post-Soviet space. Hinterland and Rimland revisited? Sergey Markedonov (2008), The Big Caucasus. Consequences of the “Five Day War”, threats and political prospects, ICBSS, Xenophon Papers 7, Athens, Greece.
Ian Lesser (2008), “After Georgia. Turkey's Looming Foreign Policy Dilemas”, The German Marshall Fund of the United States. Analysis, Washington, em www.gmfus.org
Emre eri (2009), “The US Grand Strategy and the Eurasian Heartland in the Twenty-First Century”, Geopolitics, 14, 1: 26-46, available for download at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14650040802578658
Eugene Rumer and Angela Stent (2009) “Russia and the West”, Survival, 51, 2, 91-104, available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00396330902860835
Armando Marques Guedes (2009), A Guerra dos Cinco Dias. A Invasão da Geórgia pela Federação Russa, Instituto de Estudos Superiores Militares e Prefácio, Ministério da Defesa, Lisboa [preface by Almirante Álvaro Sabino Guerreiro]. There is an English version of this, entitled The ‘Five Day War’. The August 2008 invasion of Georgia by the Russian Federation.
George Friedman (2010), “Rethinking American Options on Iran”, http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/20100830_rethinking_american_options_iran?utm_source=GWeekly&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=100831&utm_content=readmore&elq=87ec91265bd04523b3cee4ffed38e5c9
WHAT ARE HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTIONS ALL ABOUT? (17)
The mechanics and dynamics on the numerous “non-military” Portuguese Peace-Support Operations. Explanatory models and operations on the ground. Help, security, interests and force –projection. Why do we do it? Armando Marques Guedes e Luís Elias (2010), Controlos Remotos. Dimensões Externas da Segurança Interna em Portugal, Instituto Superior de Ciências Policiais e Segurança Interna e Gabinete Coordenador de Segurança (SSI), e Almedina.
ARE NEW IMPERIAL FORMS BREWING IN THE POST-BIPOLAR INTERNATIONAL ORDER? (17)
The “Clinton doctrine”, the “Bush doctrine” and the “Obama doctrine”. Democratic expansion. Different interpretations: neo-realists, neo-cons, US and British think-tanks. A new “Democratic Imperialism”? Moscow’s reaction and the new Russian “foreign policy concept”. Does Europe still matter? Office of the President of the United States of America (2002), The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, Washington, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.pdf
RobertCooper (2002), “The new liberal imperialism”, The Observer, Sunday April 7 2002: 1-5, London.
Joseph S.Nye (2002), “Limits of American power”, Political Science Quarterly 117 (4): 545-559, Harvard University.
Charles A. Kupchan (2002), “The end of the West”, The Atlantic Monthly, November: 1-5.
Robert Kagan (2002), “Power and weakness”, Policy Review 117: 1-19, Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
Stanley Kurtz (2003), “Democratic Imperialism: a blueprint”, Policy Review 118: 1-13, Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
Fareed Zakaria (2008), The Post-American World, W.W. Norton, extracts.
Armando Marques Guedes (2009), “The Unpredictability of Contemporary Global Conflicts”, 43. Jahrbuch 2007/08, Diplomatiche Akademie Wien: 224-246, Vienna, Austria.
Armando Marques Guedes (2009),“A Segurança e Defesa na Perspectiva Russa”, Nunca de Antes, Anuário, Instituto de Defesa Nacional, Ministério da Defesa, Lisboa.
Here go a few suggestions for further reading.
E.H. Carr (1998, original 1946), The Twenty Years’ Crisis: 1919-1939: an introduction to the history of international relations, MacMillan, London, extracts.
Hans Morgenthau (1973), Politics among Nations: the struggle for power and peace, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, extracts.
Kenneth Walz (1977), Man, the State and War, Columbia University Press, extracts.
Fred Halliday (1995), “The end of the Cold War and International Relations: some analytical and theoretical conclusions”, in (ed) K. Booth and S. Smith, International Relations Theory Today: 38-62, Cambridge University Press.
Joseph S. Nye (1997), “Sovereignty and intervention”, em Understanding International Conflict. An introduction to theory and history: 133-140, Longman.
João Marques de Almeida (1998), “A paz de Westfália, a história do sistema de Estado moderno e a teoria das relações internacionais”, Política Internacional 18 (2): 45-79.
Stephen Krasner (1999), Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy, Princeton University Press, extracts.
José Manuel Pureza (1999), “O príncipe e o pobre: o estudo das Relações Internacionais entre a tradição e a reinvenção”, Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais, 52-53: 363-376.
Alejandro Colás (2002), “Analysing international social movements”, International Civil Society. Social movements in world politics: 64-101, Polity, Cambridge.
John G. Ruggie (1983) “International regimes, transactions and change”, in(ed.) S. Krasner, International Regimes: 195-232, Cornell University Press.
Susan Strange (1984) “Cave hic dragones: a critique of regime theory”, International Organization 36, 2: 337-355.
R. Cox (1996, original 1992) “ Multilateralism and world order ”, in(ed.) R. Cox Approaches to World Order:494-523, Cambridge University Press,.
(eds.) S. Burchill e A. Linklater (1995), Theories of International Relations, St. Martin’s Press, New York, a few of the articles.
Robert Keohane (1995) “International institutions: two approaches “, in(ed.) J. Der Derian, International Theory: critical investigations :279-307, MacMillan,.
Susan Strange (1996) “Pinocchio’s problem and other conclusions”, in The Retreat of the State. The diffusion of power in the world economy: 183-200, Cambridge University Press.
João G. Cravinho, (1998) “O vácuo no centro: reflexões sobre o conceito de poder na tradição realista”, Política Internacional 18(2): 21-45.
Joseph Stalin (1994, original 1913), Marxism and the National Question, in (1): 18-21.
Max Weber (1948), From Max Weber: essays in Sociology, in (ed.) J. Gerth e C. Wright Mills:171-177, 179, Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Ernest Gellner (1983), “Definitions”, in Nations and Nationalism: 1-7, Blackwell.
Abner Cohen (1996, original 1969), “Ethnicity and politics” in (2): 83-84.
Will Kymlicka (1995), “The politics of multiculturalism”, in Multicultural Citizenship: a liberal theory of minority rights: 11-26, Clarendon Press, Oxford
Martin Bulmer e John Solomos (1998), “Introduction: re-thinking ethnic and racial studies", Ethnic and Racial Studies 21-5: 819-837.
Nathan Glazer e Daniel P. Moynihan (1963), Beyond the Melting Pot: 12-17, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachussets.
Paul Brass (1991), “Elite groups, symbol manipulation and ethnic identity among Muslims of south Asia” em Ethnicity and Nationalism: theory and comparison: 69-102, Croon Helm, London.
Russel Hardin (1995), “Self-interest, group identity”, in A. Breton et al. (eds.) Nationalism and rationality: 14-42, Cambridge University Press.
LeRoy Vail (1996, original 1993), “The creation of ethnicity in South Africa”, ein(2): 229-235.
Paul Gilroy (1998), “Race ends here”, Ethnic and Racial Studies 21-5: 838-847. The University of Michigan Press, Michigan.
Michael Herzfeld (1999), “Of definitions and boundaries” in Cultural Intimacy, Social Poetics in the Nation-State: 37-56, Routledge, London.
Jack David Ellen (1999), “Rwanda and Burundi: when two tribes go to war?”, in From Culture to Ethnicity to Conflict. An anthropological pespective on international ethnic conflict: 195-241, The University of Michigan Press.
Stephen Ellis (1999), “Men and devils”, The Mask of Anarchy. The destruction of Liberia and the religious dimension of an African civil war: 220-281, Hurst & Company, London.
Heike Behrend (1999), “The war of the Holy Spirit Mobile Forces”, Alice Lakwena & the Holy Spirits. War in Northern Uganda, 1986-97: 36-67, Jmaes Curry, Fountain, EAEP, Ohio University Press.