Estudos do Cinema e do Audiovisual



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Estudo do Cinema e do Audiovisual

1ª Aula – 2008-Out-??

Professora: Sandra Leandro
2ª Aula - 2008-Out-23
[Um bom Site - A História da Descoberta do Cinema - http://www.precinemahistory.net]
[1558: Giovanni Battista della Porta describes projection with a lantern in his four volume, latin publication entitled Magiae naturalis, Naples 1558. The etymology of the sobriquet lanterna magica may harken back to this title. Sinophile Joseph Needham reports the device may have been first described in China.

1671: A projecting lantern is described in Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae, by the Jesuit Athanasius Kircher in 1671. He was describing an already existing device familiar to and employed by the Jesuits since the mid sixteenth century. With an oil lamp and a lens, images painted on glass plates could be projected on to a suitable screen.]
- Athanasius Kircher - Inventor da Lanterna Mágica (1671) – Com uma lâmpada de óleo e uma lente, projectavam-se imagens pintadas em vidro.

“Ars magna lucis et umbrae” – A grande arte da luz e das sombras.


(ver: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athanasius_Kircher)

(ver: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_lantern)


- Leonardo da Vinci, já teria usado uma lente convexa

- Johann Zahn (Séc.XVIII) - câmara escura


[Its potential as a drawing aid may have been familiar to artists by as early as the 15th century; Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519 AD) described camera obscura in Codex Atlanticus. Johann Zahn's Oculus Artificialis Teledioptricus Sive Telescopium was published in 1685. This work contains many descriptions and diagrams, illustrations and sketches of both the camera obscura and of the magic lantern.]
- 1890 - Surge a 1ª Lanterna Mágica de Mesa
- Lampascope
- Fantasmagorias (Séc. XIX)

[1803 - PAUL M. PHILIPSTHAL ( - )  Philipstal provided an evening or two of enjoyment with his version of the Phantasmagoria as reported by Brewster. The apparitions were apparently produced within a small room such as an apartment and included music! Phantasmagoric visions were seen upon a translucent sheet or similar material as opposed to the dissolving view were an opaque background was required. Philipsthal not only introduced the Phantasmagoria into England, he also invented the idea of the Dissolving View. Dissolving Views were also known as Melting Sights, or Mist Pictures.]


- Thaumatropo (Roda de Faraday) - Brinquedo de criança, onde 2 imagens se "fundem" numa só.

[It is a simple illusionary toy meant to imitate motion. It consists of a circular disk made of paper, which has an image on each side. When twirled by connected string, the images combine to give an animated effect. The bird-in-a-cage was a popular theme.]



Thaumatropo (de um lado do círculo, a gaiola, do outro, o pássaro, com o movimento dá a ideia do pássaro dentro da gaiola.

- Fenakistoscópio (1º instrumento que mostra imagens em movimento)



[1891 - WILLIAM KENNEDY LAURIE DICKSON (1860 - 1935) - Dickson near-finishes the Kinetoscope (Motion Picture Viewer, or Peepshow) for Edison, who went on to patent the device. The Kinetoscope was the first 'continuous-film' motion picture projector, as well as the first time perforated film was used in projection. ]

Kinetoscope


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