Cycle cycle Table of Contents



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Synoptic Description: Spanish, Portuguese, French.

Cycle 9.


Cycle 9

Cycle 9

Table of Contents


9.0. Introduction: Present Perfect & Past Perfect……………………………………

9.1. Módulo español: pretérito perfecto & pluscuamperfecto & anterior………….

9.1.1. Pretérito perfecto del indicativo………...………………………………

9.1.2. Pretérito pluscuamperfecto del indicativo………………………….….

9.1.3. Pretérito anterior del indicativo…………………………………………

9.2. Módulo português: pretérito perfeito composto & pretérito mais-que-perfeito composto & pretérito mais-que-perfeito anterior & pretérito mais-que-perfeito simples………………………………………………………………

9.2.1. Pretérito perfeito composto do indicativo……………………………..

9.2.2. Pretérito mais-que-perfeito composto do indicativo………………….

9.2.3. Pretérito (mais-que-perfeito) anterior do indicativo……..……………

9.2.4. Pretérito mais-que-perfeito simples do indicativo………..…………..

9.2.5. Infinitivos………………………………………………………………….

9.3. Module français: passé composé & plus-que-parfait & passé antérieur….…

9.3.1. Passé composé de l’indicatif…………..…………………………….....

9.3.2. Plus-que-parfait de l’indicatif…………………………………………...

9.3.3. Passé antérieur de l’indicatif…………………………………………...

9.3.4. Liaison……………...……………………………………………………..

9.4. Synopsis: perfectum & plusquamperfectum indicativi…………………………

9.4.1. Perfectum – forma……………………………………………………….

9.4.2. Plusquamperfectum 1 – forma…………………………………………

9.4.3. Plusquamperfectum 2 – forma…………………………………………

9.4.4. Plusquamperfectum simplex……………………………………………

9.4.5. Infinitivus personalis……………………………………………………..

9.4.6. Participia – forma………………………………………………………...

9.4.7. Perfectum – usus………………………………………………………...

9.4.8. Plusquamperfectum – usus…………………………………………….


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9.0. Introduction: Present Perfect & Past Perfect


Cycle Nine is a presentation of further past tenses: perfectum indicativi (a compound past tense, a perfective tense) and plusquamperfectum indicativi (a past perfect). The tense called in Latin plusquamperfectum indicativi serves to describe past events that precede other past events; to express this idea in the Romance languages there are several tenses: in Spanish and French – two, in Portuguese – three. These tenses are called in their native languages as follows:

perfectum indicativi [Present Perfect – he has seen]

plusquamperfectum indicativi [Past Perfect – he had seen]

  • pluscuamperfecto del indicativo (había visto)

  • pretérito anterior del indicativo (hubo visto)

  • pretérito mais-que-perfeito composto do indicativo (tinha visto)

  • pretérito (mais-que-perfeito) anterior do indicativo (tivera visto)

  • pretérito mais-que-perfeito simples do indicativo (vira)

  • plus-que-parfait de l’indicatif (il avait vu)

  • passé antérieur de l’indicatif (il eut vu)

The tense called in Latin plusquamperfectum indicativi has more or less the same semantic value in all the three analysed languages. On the other hand, the semantic values of the tense called in Latin perfectum indicativi are different in each of the three languages; generally speaking, the Spanish pretérito perfecto del indicativo is very similar to the English Present Perfect; the French passé composé de l’indicatifto the German Perfektum; and the Portuguese pretérito perfeito composto do indicativo is relatively rarely used and has a meaning and a function that differ from its counterparts in other Romance languages.

Additionally, in the French Chapter, in Section 9.3.4, there has been presented an interesting phonetic phenomenon: the liaison (in English).




9.1. Módulo español:

pretérito perfecto & pluscuamperfecto & anterior


9.1.1. Préterito perfecto del indicativo 1



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