Cycle Nine is a presentation of further past tenses: perfectum indicativi (a compound past tense, a perfective tense) and plusquamperfectum indicativi(a past perfect). The tense called in Latin plusquamperfectum indicativi serves to describe past events that precede other past events; to express this idea in the Romance languages there are several tenses: in Spanish and French – two, in Portuguese – three. These tenses are called in their native languages as follows:
perfectum indicativi [Present Perfect – he has seen]
The tense called in Latin plusquamperfectum indicativi has more or less the same semantic value in all the three analysed languages. On the other hand, the semantic values of the tense called in Latin perfectum indicativi are different in each of the three languages; generally speaking, the Spanish pretérito perfecto del indicativo is very similar to the English Present Perfect; the French passé composé de l’indicatif – to the German Perfektum; and the Portuguese pretérito perfeito composto do indicativo is relatively rarely used and has a meaning and a function that differ from its counterparts in other Romance languages.
Additionally, in the French Chapter, in Section 9.3.4, there has been presented an interesting phonetic phenomenon: the liaison (in English).