Boletim Africanista, Ano VIII, n



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Boletim Africanista

Ano X, n.º 9, Setembro de 2009

Dirigido por Luís Carmo Reis
Centro de Estudos Africanos da Universidade do Porto

Via Panorâmica, s/n – 4150-564 Porto, Portugal



http://www.africanos.eu



1. Agenda africanista
2009
– 02 a 26 de Setembro de 2009 – Exposição What We See: Images, Voices, and Versioning (Reconsidering an Anthropometric Collection from Southern Africa). Basileia. Basler Afrika Bibliographien. [“The history of sound and image documentation from southern Africa is a troubled one. The exhibition What We See sets out to engage critically with these historical practices by focusing on a so-called ‘Archive of races threatened by extinction’, established in 1931 by the German artist Hans Lichtenecker. He gathered his body-based material from Africans living in Namibia – at the time (German) South West Africa.

‘What We See’ revolves around the testimonies of people who had to endure invasive investigations within a colonial context. Casts were made of their faces, their bodies were measured and anthropometric photographs were taken and voices were recorded.

The exhibition assembles a fragile space of images, voices, stories and portraits, historic documents and contemporary artworks.

This is the first opportunity to view the exhibition in Europe. Until May this year it was shown at the IZIKO Slave Lodge in Cape Town (South Africa).

Opening 2 September 2009, 18:30. Opening times: 3-26 September 2009, Thursday to Saturday, 15:00-19:00. Guided tours in German: Thursdays at 16:00, Saturdays at 16:00. For more information on the exhibition, the supporting programme and a press documentation see http://www.baslerafrika.ch/e/aktuelle_veranstaltungen.php”]
– 03 a 06 de Setembro de 2009 – Rethinking Africa and the Atlantic World. Stirling (Escócia). [“This conference combines the annual meeting of the British Group in Early American History with an event to mark the retirement of Prof. Robin Law, and is hosted by the Department of History at the University of Stirling.

Once a welcome and integrative response to the challenge of fragmentation, Atlantic history has often struggled to reconcile and accommodate subfields and disciplines, especially at the loose margins of its geographic range. There is a sense that it has talked the talk but not always walked the walk. On the one hand the core synthetic narrative has been quite selective, predictable, and unresponsive in its interaction with new scholarship in peripheral areas. On the other, new research has too often assumed connectivity, by virtue of the historiographical Atlantic turn, without fully addressing difficult questions of orientation, contingency, perspective, and comparative context. As a growing chorus of scepticism challenges the maturing (and perhaps declining) field of Atlantic history, this year’s conference considers how relevant the model continues to be, and in what ways it might be adapted to retain intellectual vitality and pedagogical usefulness.

In particular, the theme of the conference invites participants to rethink Africa and the Atlantic world. The significance of West Africa to the field of Atlantic history is well established, primarily through its furnishing of slaves to European traders. Ironically in light of its severing effects on individual lives, the African slave trade represents one of the connective engines of the Atlantic world, for instance linking oceanic commercial networks or colonial labour regimes, and facilitating important comparisons across nations, crops, and environments. Recent scholarship has proliferated on this subject, stimulated by disputes over Equiano’s authenticity, the meaning of the Black Atlantic, the nature of the Middle Passage, and the anniversaries of abolition that have generated such popular interest and publication over the past two or three years. This conference hopes to sustain some of this scholarly momentum, and also to redirect it to areas where the significance of Africa to Atlantic history, or of the Atlantic to African histories, is less clear. Ultimately, the conference hopes to bring into conversation recent developments in Atlantic history, the history of the Americas, and African history, in order to identify new directions for scholarship and build on previous models. Some suggestive questions are appended below:

What emerges if we apply the multicentrism that is supposedly ingrained in Atlantic history to Africans’ highly competitive personal and communal environments? How comparable were Africans’ experiences not only as slave sellers, but as buyers (of textiles, currencies, alcohol and guns) with other African ethno-linguistic groups, or with peoples on other Atlantic continents? Does the early modern Atlantic framework hinder moving “Beyond Blacks, Bondage, and Blame” (the title of a 2004 essay by Joseph C. Miller)? How do we account for the resilient character of pre-colonial African institutions (particularly social, economic, and political), and to what degree did they determine market behaviour? How should the position of Africa, the barrier (or conduit) between Atlantic and Indian Ocean worlds, be properly defined from the perspective of early modern empires? How differentiated were African identities in the Americas, and how rapidly did they erode with creolisation?

The aims of the conference are: To provide a platform for current and new research on the themes listed below; To foster co-operation and interaction between historians of different fields, continents, time/historical periods and generations; To provide an opportunity for graduate students and early career researchers to showcase their research; To mark Prof. Law’s contribution to African and Atlantic history.

(… …) The programme will include the annual Caroline Robbins lecture, to be delivered by Prof. Billy G. Smith (Montana State University), a range of keynote speakers from Africa, the U.S., Canada, and the U.K., a book-club session, the launch of Prof. Law’s festschrift, and social activities in Stirling. (… …)

Conference chairs: Dr. Ben Marsh (Stirling), Dr. Phia Steyn (Stirling). Conference committee: Prof. Simon Newman (Glasgow), Ms. Catriona Paul (BGEAH postgrad rep, Dundee), Dr. Silke Strickrodt (Berlin), Dr. Matthew Ward (Dundee), Dr. Natalie Zacek (Manchester)”]
– 09 a 11 de Setembro de 2009 – Classificar o Mundo. IV Congresso da Associação Portuguesa de Antropologia (APA). Lisboa. [“Em 2009, a Associação Portuguesa de Antropologia celebra o seu vigésimo aniversário com a realização do IV Congresso da APA, subordinado ao tema Classificar o Mundo. Entendemos que este tema nos permite abordar tanto o que a antropologia faz como o que a antropologia estuda.

O acto de classificar está implícito na construção de grandes categorias de identificação e diferenciação sociocultural que têm acompanhado a reflexão da nossa disciplina. Ao mesmo tempo, classificar – objectos, conceitos e relações – é também um objecto de reflexão antropológica sobre processos sociais e culturais, políticos e cognitivos de entendimento do mundo. Assim, a partir deste tema, propomos uma reflexão sobre a construção de categorizações que tanto são discriminatórias, e desencadeiam a desigualdade, como promovem a solidariedade e o comprometimento. O tema remete-nos, assim, para os processos de classificação categorial e de alteridade, mas também, e em última instância, faz-nos pensar nos espartilhos da condição humana, nos paradoxos e desajustes da história e nos processos de criação das pessoas no mundo. Desta forma, propomos uma reflexão tanto sobre os processos culturais de comunicação como sobre a forma como tais processos ocorrem através da construção do mundo.

Neste congresso, poderemos tomar em consideração a relevância contemporânea deste tema antropológico clássico. Relembrando um dos debates fundadores da antropologia – a problemática do totemismo, por exemplo – queremos hoje igualmente reactivar a discussão sobre as condições de diferenciação humana, sobre as políticas de discriminação étnica, de género, de circulação de pessoas, de fechamento de fronteiras e abertura do mercado, sobre a mobilidade humana e ainda sobre os grandes divisores de sistemas sociais e cognitivos. Por isso podemos dizer que classificar o mundo implica, igualmente, reflectir sobre as condições de produção do conhecimento antropológico, tais como o universalismo e o particularismo, a comparação e a construção de categorias de entendimento da vida e do poder. Ficam aqui múltiplas sugestões para o debate. Afinal, como se ordena o mundo e como se torna essa ordenação num processo de conquista, escondendo programas sociais e políticos sob princípios de diferenciação?

Neste ano comemorativo do vigésimo aniversário da APA, apelamos de forma particularmente veemente para a sempre dinâmica participação dos nossos sócios no congresso. Partindo do desafio deixado pelo tema do congresso, enviem-nos desde já propostas para painéis temáticos. Queremos fazer deste congresso um evento celebratório da antropologia em Portugal.”

Mais informações: Associação Portuguesa de Antropologia (APA) – Instituto de Ciências Sociais/Universidade de Lisboa – ICS – Av. Professor Anibal Bettencourt, n.º 9 – 1600-189 Lisboa; apa@ics.ul.pthttp://www.apantropologia.net/]
– 21 a 23 de Setembro de 2009 – Slavery in All its Forms: Historical Practices and Contemporary Problems. A Three-Day Intensive Course for Postgraduate Students and Practitioners. Wilberforce Institute for the study of Slavery and Emancipation, Hull (Inglaterra). [“Slavery is both a core feature of human history and a topic of increasing public concern in the contemporary world. This intensive short course offers participants a unique opportunity to study both historical slave systems and modern forms of slavery in a single setting. This interdisciplinary programme has been designed for scholars and practitioners who are familiar which some aspects of slavery and abolition, but would benefit from further engagement with the broader history and modern dimensions of slavery in all its forms.

To help support postgraduate students, the Wilberforce Institute has also secured funding for ten travel bursaries, which cover UK travel, accommodation and course fees. The masterclass also precedes a major international conference on ‘Slavery, Migration and Contemporary Bondage in Africa’, which will take place between the 23rd-25th of September at the Wilberforce Institute. Participants may want to consider attending both course and conference.

Course Structure: This intensive course will take place over three days. Over the course of ten individual sessions, participants will receive expert instruction on various historical slave systems, the legal abolition of slavery, modern forms of slavery, methods for studying slavery, reparations for slavery, and forms of public commemoration. As part of this programme, participants will also undertake a guided tour of Wilberforce House, one of the world’s oldest museums dedicated to the

history of slavery and abolition.

Participants will be provided with a selection of readings on each of the topics covered in the course. Each session will involve an introductory lecture, followed by class participation and deliberation. Places on the course are strictly limited. No more than 50 places will be made available. In order to keep class sizes as small as possible, participants will be divided into two different groups. Each morning and afternoon will involve two parallel sessions, with one group attending one session, and a second group attending the other. At the end of these initial sessions the two groups will then switch, ensuring that participants receive instruction in both topics. On the final day of the course, participants will also have the choice of studying either historical or contemporary research methods.

21st of September: Morning. Introduction: Slavery: Past and Present (Joel Quirk, Wilberforce Institute and Darshan Vigneswaran, Forced Migration Studies Programme, WITS).



Afternoon. Transatlantic Slavery (Simon D. Smith, Wilberforce Institute); Slavery in Africa (Paul Lovejoy, the Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on the Global Migrations of African Peoples, York University).

22nd of September: Morning. The Legal Abolition of Slavery (David Richardson, Wilberforce Institute). Bonded Labour (Joel Quirk and Gary Craig, Wilberforce Institute).



Afternoon. Human Trafficking and the Exploitation of Migrants (Mick Wilkinson, Wilberforce Institute). ‘Classical’ Slavery and Descent Based Discrimination (Benedetta Rossi, Centre for the Study of International Slavery, University of Liverpool).

23rd of September: Morning. Research Methods and Contemporary Migration (Darshan Vigneswaran) or Research Methods and the History of Slavery (Douglas Hamilton).



Midday. Repairing Historical Wrongs: Slavery and its Legacies (Rhoda Howard-Hassmann, Department of Global Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University). Representing Slavery at Wilberforce House (Nicholas J. Evans and Douglas Hamilton, Wilberforce Institute).

Instructors: Dr Benedetta Rossi is an expert on slavery and migration in Niger, and is the recent author of Reconfiguring Slavery: West African Trajectories (Liverpool, 2009).

Dr Darshan Vigneswaran is an expert on migration in Africa, and is the recent author of articles in Political Geography, Development and Review of International Studies.

Professor David Richardson is a world renowned expert on the history of Transatlantic Slavery, and is the recent co-author of Extending the Frontiers: Essays on the New Transatlantic Slave Trade Database (Yale, 2008).

Dr Douglas Hamilton is an expert on history of the eighteenth century British Atlantic World, and is the recent co-author of Representing Slavery: Art, Artefacts and Archives in the Collections of the National Maritime Museum (Lund Humphries, 2007).

Professor Gary Craig is an expert on social justice and modern slavery, and is the recent author of Child Slavery Worldwide (Special Issue of Children and Society, 2008).

Dr Joel Quirk is an expert on links between historical slave systems and contemporary problems, and is the recent author of Unfinished Business: A Comparative Survey of Historical and Contemporary Slavery (UNESCO, 2008).

Dr Mick Wilkinson is an expert on migration and human trafficking in the United Kingdom, and is the recent co-author of Contemporary Slavery in the United Kingdom (Joseph Rowntree, 2007).

Dr Nicholas J. Evans is an expert on migration, diaspora, and ‘white’ slavery, and is the recent author of articles in the International Journal of Maritime History, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, and Journal of Jewish Culture and History.

Professor Paul Lovejoy is a world renowned expert on the history of slavery in Africa and African diasporas, and is the recent author of Slavery, Commerce and Production in West Africa: Slave Society in the Sokoto Caliphate (Africa World Press, 2005).

Professor Rhoda Howard-Hassmann is a world renowned expert on international human rights, and is the recent author of Reparations to Africa (Pennsylvania, 2008).

Professor Simon D. Smith is an expert on both the history of transatlantic slavery and the history of the Caribbean, and is the recent author of Slavery, Family, and Gentry Capitalism in the British Atlantic: the World of the Lascelles (1648-1834) (Cambridge, 2006).

(… …)

Contact Information: Wilberforce Institute for the study of Slavery and Emancipation, University of Hull, Oriel Chambers, 27 High Street, Hull, HU1 1NE, UK



Phone: 01482 305176 Fax: 01482 305184 Email: wise@hull.ac.uk

Requests for further information can also be directed to either Sarah Carter at



sarah.carter@hull.ac.uk (admin) or Joel Quirk at j.quirk@hull.ac.uk (course content).

About the Wilberforce Institute: Since its foundation in 2006, the Wilberforce Institute has established itself as a leading voice on questions of slavery, both nationally and internationally. The Institute seeks to improve knowledge and understanding of both historical slave systems and modern forms of slavery, and to inform public policy and political activism. Instead of viewing historical and contemporary slavery as separate fields of study, the Institute starts with the idea that

the history and legacies of slavery and abolition can offer an invaluable foundation from which to understand and eradicate modern forms of human bondage. This integrated approach to past and present is unique. The Wilberforce Institute is the only place in the world which can offer specialist

expertise on both historical slave systems and contemporary problems.”]
– 23 de Setembro de 2009 – Migrants and Diversity: Understanding Trends & Traditions. Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London. Rooms ST 274/275/276 Stewart House, 32 Russell Square, London. [Programa: “9.45 am – Registration; 9.50 am – Welcome; 9.55 am – Introduction; 10.00 am – Imperial Slave Soldiers: British and French Enlistment of Africans during the Napoleonic Wars (1795-1815) (Bryan Claxton, Institute of Historical Research, School of Advanced Study); 10.45am – From African Migrant to Asian Citizen: Displacement and Diversity (Shihan de Silva, Institute of Commonwealth Studies); 11.30 am – The Democratic Sidi Sardars of Janjira (Faaeza Jasdanwalla, University of Aberystwyth); 12.15 pm – The colonial response to African slaves in British India: two contrasting cases (Rosie Llewellyn-Jones, Fellow, Royal Asiatic Society); 1.00 pm – Lunch break; 2.00 pm – The Emancipation of Slaves in Traditional Ethiopia as decreed in the ‘Fetha Nagast’, or Law of the Kings (Richard Pankhurst, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia); 2.45 pm – Understanding Diversity through Traditional Arts of India (Saurabh Gupta, London Metropolitan University); 3.30 pm – Diversity and Collaborative Advantage (Richard Ennals, Kingston University); 4.15 pm – Round Table Discussion; 5.00 pm – Wine & Cheese Reception. For reservations contact: shihan.desilva@sas.ac.uk (places limited). Registration fee: £5 (payable on the day)”]
– 23 e 24 de Setembro de 2009 – Colóquio em homenagem a Aquino de Bragança: Como Fazer Ciências Sociais e Humanas em África: Questões epistemológicas, metodológicas, teóricas e políticas. Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (UEM), Maputo. [“O Centro de Estudos Africanos (da UEM) está a organizar um colóquio (...) em homenagem a Aquino de Bragança (...)”

“(...) ‘Num contexto em que a globalização deixa cada vez menos espaço para pensar fora dos paradigmas ditados pelo sistema, é crucial lembrar uma personalidade que conseguiu fazer da sua vida um exemplo de fidelidade à politica emancipalista, sem cair, como ele gostava de repetir, no «Marxismo de cartilhas» (…). A grande paixão política e intelectual de Aquino de Bragança foi sempre a de procurar respostas singulares aos desafios não só do momento, mas também do futuro’

(J. Depelchin, http://www.pambazuka.org/pt/category/features/47521, 19 de Abril de 2008). Falecido em 1986, o pensamento de Aquino de Bragança continua sempre vivo e presente, quando nos lembra a necessidade de um questionamento permanente à produção científica, e à necessidade de uma descolonização do pensamento africano. Em memória do que lhe foi mais caro, enquanto pensador, cientista e defensor dos direitos humanos, este colóquio presta-lhe uma modesta homenagem.

As crises de pensamento decorrentes das grandes mudanças que ocorreram no mundo durante a última metade do século XX e início deste século levaram as Ciências Sociais e as Humanidades a acelerar a sua reconceptualização num esforço tendente a clarificar e redefinir o seu papel na sociedade. Hoje, mais do que nunca, se debate sobre a finalidade das Ciências Sociais e o seu papel na sociedade. Proporcionam um aconselhamento sábio sobre problemas do presente? Ajudam os seres humanos a interpretar o mundo que os rodeia para melhor agirem sobre o mesmo? Contribuem para uma maior eficácia das decisões políticas e administrativas?

A procura de respostas para estes questionamentos não pode estar dissociada da discussão em redor da problemática referente à produção e apropriação do conhecimento. A cultura científica hoje tornou-se uma importante dimensão constitutiva das sociedades contemporâneas, enquanto recurso e enquanto problema, na medida em que interfere com todos os domínios da vida social. Ela representa o vector decisivo de modernização e desenvolvimento, no que se tem vindo a chamar ‘sociedade de informação’ e ‘sociedade de conhecimento’. Neste contexto, é lícito perguntar, ‘como fazer ciências sociais em África’?

Numa altura em que tanto se discutem as relações Norte-Sul e Sul-Sul, colonialimo/pós-colonialismo e colonialidade, que se aplicam igualmente na produção e apropriação do conhecimento científico, questionamo-nos se é possível produzir formas alternativas de conhecimento a partir do continente africano, que possam contribuir para uma perspectiva epistemológica crítica que seja capaz de desafiar quer os paradigmas eurocêntricos hegemónicos, quer os afrocêntricos. É igualmente relevante discutir até que ponto a formulação/reformulação de questões de carácter teórico-metodológico a partir de África poderá de algum modo contribuir para que haja uma descolonização das relações de poder na produção de conhecimento num meio ambiente em que o exercício da cidadania impõe a restrição das liberdades académicas.

(... ...)

Qualquer dúvida poderá ser enviada para o endereço do colóquio



(coloquioaquinodebraganca@uem.mz), ou para:

Amélia Neves de Souto: amelianeves.souto@gmail.com

Isabel Maria Casimiro: isabelmaria.casimiro@gmail.com

Teresa Cruz e Silva: tcsilva@mail.com”]


– 23 a 25 de Setembro de 2009 – Slavery, Migration, and Contemporary Bondage in Africa. Hull (Inglaterra). [“(…) an interdisciplinary conference on ‘Slavery, Migration, and Contemporary Bondage in Africa’, to take place at the Wilberforce Institute for the Study of Slavery and Emancipation, Hull, United Kingdom. This conference will explore linkages between the history of slavery and migration in Africa and contemporary forms of bondage, such as child labour, ‘classical’ slavery, child soldiers, descent based discrimination, and human trafficking and the exploitation of migrants. Eight travel bursaries are available for early career scholars based in and/or from Africa. The conference has been sponsored by: – The Wilberforce Institute, University of Hull (http://www.hull.ac.uk/wise); – The Forced Migration Studies Programme, University of Witwatersrand (http://www.migration.org.za); – The Centro de Estudos Africanos, Universidade do Porto (http://www.africanos.eu/ceaup/); – The Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on the Global Migrations of African Peoples, York University

(http://www.yorku.ca/tubman/Home/index.html); – The European Union Seventh Framework Programme, EURESCL Project (http://www.eurescl.eu); – The British Academy UK-Africa Partnership Programme (http://www.britac.ac.uk/).

(…)

Background: The history of slavery and abolition is not confined to the Americas, but also extends to millions of slaves in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. When the Trans-Atlantic slave trade finally came to an end in the 1860s, both slavery and slave trading remained widespread across most of Africa. Prior to the colonial ‘scramble’ of the late nineteenth century, African slaves represented more than a third of the population in some parts of the continent. During this period, the need to abolish slavery and slave trading featured prominently amongst self-serving justifications for wars of colonial conquest, but once European authority was firmly established this anti-slavery rhetoric quickly gave way to cautious incrementalism. Under colonial rule, slavery in Africa experienced a ‘slow death’ that was frequently measured in decades, rather than years. It remains an open question, however, whether the legal abolition of slavery can be regarded as a clear break with the past. Once slave labour was renounced, colonial agents turned to related forms of exploitation, such as forced, bonded and indentured labour, which could be more brutal and exploitative than indigenous slave systems. When controls on movement associated with slavery came to an end, political elites turned to other instruments to take their place, such as ‘vagrancy’ laws, migration schemes, and racially and ethnically defined barriers.



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